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Substation Protection


Protective Relay Frustrations

Solving misoperation with line parameter measurements BY WILL KNAPEK, OMICRON USA Between 80 to 90 percent of all power system faults involve ground. Many protective relaying schemes depend on ground distance protection to accurately sense and locate ground faults on multi-terminal sub-transmission...

Safe Grounding in Substations

How to guard utility personnel from shock hazards BY JEFF JOWETT, Megger In the power industry, safety is just as important a function as performance. Safety considerations, parameters, and methods of implementation are an integral part of any electrical system. A most important element is the...

Selecting Substation Medium-Voltage Switchgear: GIS vs. AIS

Understanding differences between GIS and AIS in five points BY GAETAN DJENANE, Schneider Electric, Inc. Many considerations must be taken into account before selecting the electrical medium-voltage (MV) switchgear that best meets a user’s needs. From a management perspective, considerations...

Substation Protection

focus on environment

Substation Focused on Environmental Design

One of the important trends in design of new overhead lines over the past 20 years has been development of structures and designs that are less obtrusive and more pleasing visually. Much the same process has also been going on at substations. For example, even 25 years ago, efforts had already been in place as far afield as Finland and Australia to build substations designed to facilitate acceptance by affected communities – either through aesthetic...

Related Articles


Selecting Substation Medium-Voltage Switchgear: GIS vs. AIS

Understanding differences between GIS and AIS in five points BY GAETAN DJENANE, Schneider Electric, Inc. Many considerations must be taken into account before selecting the electrical medium-voltage (MV) switchgear that best meets a user’s needs. From a management perspective, considerations...

Protection of Electrical Power Transformers

INTRODUCTIONIn most large electrical systems, generators and power transformers are the two most expensive pieces of equipment. In addition to the capital cost of purchase, these two key devices are also the most critical to continuous and reliable operation of the system.Consider, for example, the...

Utilizing Fault Resistance to Test Distance Relays

Taking power grid protection to an all-new level BY JASON BUNEO & RENE AGUILAR, Megger The testing of distance relays has evolved from testing simple electromechanical relays to the newest modern microprossesor relays. Most modern relays employ advanced algorithms that not only compare the...

Storm-Hardened Switchgear

How to protect electrical equipment from Mother Nature BY ROBERT A. MURPHY, Trayer Engineering Corporation The U.S. National Weather Service called Hurricane Sandy the most destructive storm of 2012’s unusually active Atlantic hurricane season. Sandy delivered unprecedented damage across a wide...


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The Fight Against Animal-Caused Power Outages

Every day across the country, animals enter substations for warmth, food, security, or simply out of curiosity. In many areas, wildlife intruding into power equipment has become the leading cause of outages – even more common than storms or vegetation.A single substation outage can cost tens...

Protection of Electrical Power Transformers

INTRODUCTIONIn most large electrical systems, generators and power transformers are the two most expensive pieces of equipment. In addition to the capital cost of purchase, these two key devices are also the most critical to continuous and reliable operation of the system.Consider, for example, the...

focus on environment

Substation Focused on Environmental Design

One of the important trends in design of new overhead lines over the past 20 years has been development of structures and designs that are less obtrusive and more pleasing visually. Much the same process has also been going on at substations. For example, even 25 years ago, efforts had already been...

Transmission Planning for Grid Security

Recent physical attacks on substations have heightened the industry’s awareness of the necessity for physical security of critical facilities on the bulk power system. The goal of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) reliability...

Safe Grounding in Substations

How to guard utility personnel from shock hazards BY JEFF JOWETT, Megger In the power industry, safety is just as important a function as performance. Safety considerations, parameters, and methods of implementation are an integral part of any electrical system. A most important element is the...

Protective Relay Frustrations

Solving misoperation with line parameter measurements BY WILL KNAPEK, OMICRON USA Between 80 to 90 percent of all power system faults involve ground. Many protective relaying schemes depend on ground distance protection to accurately sense and locate ground faults on multi-terminal sub-transmission...

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